Annv. Omission of T question

Unit 22 says the T is omitted at the end of a word.  And after the S.
So COST does not have the T
However, it says T is written in the following words.
And COAST has the T.
Why?
Is it just a variation, the vowel sounds or sounds in general, to know the difference between when transcribing??? or what? 
confused shorthand writer here…
Thanks
Debbi

(by debbiavon1 for
everyone)

10 comments Add yours
  1. This is one of those things … that unfortunately is a matter of memorization. Here are some general rules when to write the t:

    1. in past tenses: mixed, lost, mixed
    2. in the termination -tent or -tant: intent, distant, content, patent, extent
    3. in the termination -ast: cast, fast, vast (because it can be confused with case, face, vase if you don't write it): exceptions: past, last
    4. in the termination "long e"-st: east, feast, beast, leased
    5. in the termination "long o"-st: post, coast, roast, boast
    6. in the termination -ust: dust, rust, gust (except "disgust", "just" and derivatives of "just", like "adjust")
    7. in the termination "long a"-ste: paste, taste, baste
    8. in the termination "oe"-rst: burst, worst

    You generally omit the t after -est and -ist and the "open o"-st sounds (exhaust, cost).

  2. There's also another case in which you may write the t, and it is in the case of superlatives (-est) of brief forms or abbreviated words.  The general rule is as follows.  If the outline of the brief form (or abbreviated word) ends with the same consonant as the word, you eliminate the t, and write it as -es:   strangest: s – t – j – es longest: l – ng – es soonest: s – n – es youngest: y – ng – es furthest: f – right th – es (think as if it's coming from further, and -ther is the right th) farthest: f – a – right th – es (think as if it's coming from farther, and -ther is the right th)   If the outline does not end with the same consonant as the word, or if the brief form or abbreviated word ends in a vowel, you write it with a disjoined -st, to keep the legibility of the outline:    prettiest:  p – t – e – disjoined st busiest: b – s – e – disjoined st dearest: d – reverse e – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant, and brief form ends in vowel) nearest: n – reverse e – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant, and brief form ends in vowel) clearest: k – l – e – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant, and brief form ends in vowel) sincerest: s – e – n – s – e – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant, and brief form ends in vowel) simplest: s – e – m – p – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant) friendliest: f – r  – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant) slenderest: s – l – e – nd – disjoined st (does not end with the same consonant)   If the joining is facile (which is usually the case after hooks and "ai" circle), you may join the -st.  This happens in:   greatest smallest lowest fullest truest surest lightest kindest

  3. Thanks Tina.  No, I'm not a shorthand instructor, but I teach part-time.  Because of that, I try to make sense out of rules so that they are easy for anyone to remember.  I also realize that the manual is a little "slim" in the explanation department …

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