Abbreviating principle

I’m a bit confused about when the abbreviating principle is applied in Anniversary.
The ‘small but useful group of words’ in Unit 25: do they have anything in common apart from being common? Do you just have to remember them?
Unit 26: I can understand writing as far as the accented syllable, or beyond, if that makes it distinctive. ‘abs’ for absent makes sense. And if I check my dictionary, there it is: ‘abs’. Same with essential, capable, frequent and so on. They’re all there. But again, have they got something in common? If I pick other words at random from the dictionary (heliotrope, headboard, milkman, dynamic) the abbreviating principle hasn’t been applied.
It all seems a bit random, which makes it difficult to get my head round. Have I missed something?
Kevin

(by kevinwal for everyone)

14 comments Add yours
  1. Kevin,   I  believe the abbreviating principle is illustrated in the manuals to help us understand the principle and see its application so that we may apply it to other words with which we come in contact. Like any rule it has its exceptions and can be unwisely overdone. I think one consideration should be will it be recognizable at a future date. When writing quickly in longhand we often use or invent abbreviations and the same can be said about shorthand even if the principle was never formalized in the manuals. What Gregg has done is present a basis for consistancy in abbreviation that brings clarity for both writer and any future reader. DOC

    1. Let me add to what Doc said.

      Words in Gregg Shorthand can be formed by writing them in two ways:

      1. phonetically in full: This is the case for proper names (Mary, John, Emma, etc.), short words (cake, bag, bread, reduce, May, etc.), or words for which we want to avoid ambiguity (vacate, dedicate, advocate, delegate).
      2. in an abbreviated form. This can be done by using:
      a. brief forms (for example: young, organize, office, advertise)
      b. analogical word endings and beginnings (for example: ability, construct, include, disturb, misunderstand)
      c. the abbreviating principle (arrive, similar, assemble, San Francisco, Syracuse).
      d. a combination of a, b, and c (for example: reconstruction, inability, disorganize, advertisement, assemblage, similarity, arrived)

      Simply stated, the Abbreviating Principle indicates that enough of a word should be written to allow transcription. The key to the application of the principle is deciding how much is enough. In fact, the prominence of the application of the principle is one of the distinguishing features of Pre-Anniversary and Anniversary Gregg from the subsequent series.

      Unfortunately, the only way to know the application of the principle is by memory. This is one of the reasons why the “memory load” of early versions of Gregg Shorthand is high. The successful application of the principle in daily writing depends on hard study and practice, so that the outlines can be impressed in the brain.

    2. Words that are formed using the Abbreviating Principle fall in four groups.

      Group 1. Words with Similar Longhand and Shorthand Outlines

      These include: America, amount, anonymous, answer, account, balance, Boulevard, degree, discount, etcetera, England, equivalent, function, horsepower, junction, magazine, memorandum, nos., paid, post office, P.S. (postscript), Reverend, railroad, OK, freight on board (f.o.b.), Street (next to a street name), U.S., U.S.A., ultimo; the days Monday, Friday, and Saturday; the months January, February, April, October, and December; the states of Alabama, Arizona, Arkansas, Delaware, District of Columbia, Florida, Georgia, Illinois, Indiana, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Massachusetts, New Jersey, North Dakota, Oklahoma, Pennsylvania, Rhode Island, South Dakota, Tennessee, Vermont, Virginia, Washington, and West Virginia

      Group 2. Short Words with Diphthongs or Strongly Accented Vowels

      We write these words up to the diphthong or the vowel, as the case may be:

      ai: anxiety, arrive, appetite, bright, combine, decide, delight, fright, light, invite, preside, polite, private, provide, reside, slight, strike, typewriter, unite

      eu: abuse, accuse, confuse, diffuse, excuse, peculiar, persecute, profuse, pure, refuse, Syracuse, Europe

      au: cloud, crowd, doubt, loud, proud, south (but not mouth, shroud)

      oi: avoid, celluloid, devoid, loyal (loyalty), paranoid, solenoid, thyroid (but not void, or any word that ends in “oil”)

      strong a: became, desperate, dictate, engage, freight, grade, hesitate, operate, prevail, relate, trade

      strong e: compete, conceive, perceive, proceed, repeat, sincere

      strong o: glory

      strong u: poor, stood, move, remove, understood

    3. Group 3. Words Written up to the Last Accented Syllable

      This group includes: absolve, accustom, ambassador, ambitious, anxious, arithmetic, asbestos, assembly (assemble), brilliant, cabinet, capable, catastrophe, Catholic, certificate, children, Christmas, clever, collateral, color, convenience (convenient), cooperate (cooperation), custom, delegate, delinquent, deposit, develop, elaborate, establish, familiar, financial, general, geometry, gratitude, gymnasium, husband, ignorance (ignorant), illustrate (illustration), imagine (imagination), involve, journal, knowledge, language, length, liberty, magazine, master, moderate, mortgage, neglect, negotiate, number, novel, offer, opportunity, original, philosophy, pleasant, policy, popular, possible, poverty, prejudice, preliminary, principle (principal), privilege, refrigerate, relative, relinquish, reluctant, reunion, reverence, ridiculous, river, scientific, single, specify, struggle, suffer (sufficient), travel, unanimous, union, universe, vulgar

      Group 4: Words Written to Consonant Following the Accented Syllable

      In this group, it is necessary to extend the outline because the word would become illegible otherwise. This group includes: abandon, abbreviate, abrogate, absence (absent), absolute, accident, accomplish, adequate, administer, affidavit, Africa, algebra, animal, appreciate (appreciation), aptitude, arbitrary, artificial, associate, atmosphere, attitude, attribute, authentic, benefit, calendar, cancel, carnival, catalog, celebrate, commercial, confidential, consequence, contemplate, cordial, corporation, curriculum, cylinder, deliberate, delicate, delicious, demonstrate, dilapidate, diligence, duplicate, eloquent (eloquence), emancipate, eminent, enormous, enthusiasm, enumerate, entitle, essential, exasperate, exercise, frequent, handkerchief, hundred, inaugurate, incorporated, indicate, initial, innocent (innocence), institute, latitude, legal, liberal, local (locate), manufacture, malicious, marvelous, material, melancholy, miraculous, military, miscellaneous, mischief, necessity, numerous, obligate, observe, obvious, opposite, ordinary, pamphlet, pecuniary, permanent, perpendicular, phenomenal, practice, preparation, prominent, relegate, remonstrate, render, sacrifice, scrupulous, separate, several, silence, silver, similar, singular, social, sovereign, splendid, success, syndicate, synonymous, temperance, territory, title, total, trifle, vernacular, vindicate, vociferous

      Some of the cities and countries of the world are written according to the Abbreviating Principle. In the Western Hemisphere: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Colombia, Guatemala, Mexico, Nicaragua, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina; in Europe: Ireland, Portugal, Scotland, Switzerland, Yugoslavia; in Asia: Afghanistan; in Africa: Morocco, Algeria. Some cities written with the principle are: Calcutta, Chihuahua, Glasgow, Guadalajara, Jerusalem, Leningrad, Los Angeles, Melbourne, Montevideo, Moscow, Rio de Janeiro, San Angelo, San Bernardino, San Francisco, San Rafael, St. Augustine, St. Joseph, Santa Barbara, Tokyo, Valparaiso, Victoria.

      Unfortunately, the way to make use of these lists is by practicing them in sentences, by repetition and memorization. After a while, they will become engrained and second nature to write.

      In series of Gregg Shorthand after Anniversary, a great majority of these words are either (1) spelled out (for example: silver, temperance), or (2) modified to form an analogical ending (for example: attitude, latitude, aptitude). A small number became brief forms (for example: ordinary, manufacture in DJS). That's how the memory load was greatly reduced in those series.

      There are slight differences in the application of the principle between Pre-Anniversary and Anniversary Gregg. For example, in Pre-Anniversary (1916) the following words are abbreviated: adolescent, applicant, canvass, capacitate, dictate, eclectic, gradual, irresistible, malignant (written without the final n), obnoxious.

    4. NB: The past four replies were originally posted as one post on May 5, 2005, but did not make it to Blogger since it has a limit in the number of characters a reply post can have (4,096).

    5. Thanks for putting this here! Did you compile this list from your own experience? As a newbie question, is this list fairly comprehensive for the authorized outlines? Do you happen to have a version that is in a similar format to the dictionary?

      Of course, it seems that making use of the abb. principle is encouraged for personal vocabulary that is frequently used but knowing the ones in broader/common use makes it easier to read things like The Gregg Writer.

    6. The list was put together from the Anniversary dictionary, so it is pretty comprehensive. I may have missed a word, and if I did, please let me know, so that I can update the list.

      The cities and countries names are from other sources (Gregg Speed Studies, for example), and those are not comprehensive (that's why it reads "some of the cities …"). On the other hand, the states that follow the AP are complete.

      Unfortunately, I don't have another list in similar format to the dictionary, if what you mean by that is by alphabetical order with the outline next to it.

      Lastly, do not attempt to memorize all of these words! Stick to the ones in the manual, the GSS book, and the 5000 most used forms book first, as those are the more common. Later on, once you know your theory backwards and forwards, take an article and write it in shorthand. You'll find that many of these abbreviated words will magically appear.

      Some general warnings about the Anniversary dictionary:

      1. Some early printed editions have outline errors. (More than likely if your edition was printed in the 40s, it will be fine.)
      2. The dictionary contains about 19,000 words. In contrast, the Simplified and S90 dictionaries contain approximately 26,000 and 33,000 words, respectively. Hence, not every word that is contained in the later dictionaries made it in the Anniversary dictionary, and for some of these additional words, it could be that the AP may also be applied.

    7. Correction: I checked my notes, and the list was put together from the manual, the two Anniversary editions of GSS, and the 5,000 most used words book. There are many more words that use the AP in the dictionary that are not on the list. Sorry about that.

  2. Doc – thanks.   Wow, Chuck. Thanks for that. I think I need to print it out and digest it slowly.   The memory load in Anniversary really is much higher than Simplified. I have to admit, I'm struggling a bit.   Kevin

  3. That's why one needs to digest this slowly — especially with words of Groups 3 and 4! It can be a little frustrating if you want to learn all of those words at once. I recommend sticking with the words in the manual at first, then add others as you are ready to do so. Keep a small notebook in which you add vocabulary, and every time you add a new word, read it aloud as you write it. (For example, how many times do you write the word "vociferous"?)

    I included all of those words so that you can see that the principle is applied very frequently and to serve as a reference.

  4. I had printed this post off 8 months ago and was intending to get back to it for some time. Well I just did and it is mighty useful. Chuck you've been at these forums for a long time already!

    Group 1 is not fully useful since half the abbreviations are a bit old fashioned.
    Group 2 is excellent. The 'eu' 'oi' 'strong e' especially were the ones that had not impressed on my memory through studying the manual.
    Group 3 and 4 I'm still studying now.

  5. Yes, I remember this list. The words on Group 1 are the easier ones to remember, because they have similar abbreviations in longhand. A good way to remember the words from Groups 3 and 4 is to write them in longhand in abbreviated form, for example, silver=silv, clever=clev, splendid=splend, Christmas=cris, etc.

  6. The abbreviating principle is key to making Gregg live in today's world. It allows the user to get away from rote memorization of many words that are not frequently used, and compile a list of abbreviations for words he uses frequently. The user is then not dependent on a dictionary, and can deal with words not dreamed of in the early days of Gregg.

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