Rule for representing -ed ending as either -d or -t

Hello, I have been learning DJS with some Simplified forms for a few months now and have greatly appreciated all the help from this site. I have noticed that sometimes -ed is represented by -t and sometimes by -d. I saw a reply from Carlos in a different post explaining the rules for which stroke to use and when, but I can’t seem to find that message or the original post. Could someone explain the rule for when to use -t and when to use -d? Thanks again for all the excellent material and help with this site in preserving shorthand.

Previous post:
Next post:
7 comments Add yours
  1. Diamond Jubilee and Simplified have entirely different rules for expressing the past tense, so this may be confusing to you at this point.  In Simplified, the past tense is always represented by the disjoined "t".  In Diamond Jubilee, the past tense is always joined–as in rated, spelled r-a-ted.

    The DJ rule actually makes more sense, since it does save a pen lift.

    1. I think Simplified only lifts the pen if the last letter of the word is left off, as in a brief form or a suffix. Students joined it anyways, and were able to read it, so DJS took it out. DJS made some things easier to remember when writing, and other things easier to read back.

      Disjoined D means -ward, so can't be used to mean past tense.

  2. In DJS and later versions you are supposed to write a T or a D according to what you hear. It’s not usually critical, though I suppose technically “phased” and “faced” For example should be distinct. 

  3. I think you are talking about one of my comments in this post. Here is a small summary of the Simplified conventions:

    In general, follow the sound of the ending to know if it is t or d: voiceless consonants are followed by t and voiced consonants are followed by d.

    Abbreviated outlines that do not end with the last sound of the word form their past tense using the disjoined t (for example: enclosed, ordered, presented, educated, delegated, rested, respected, demanded, classified, emulated, diagrammed).

    Outlines that can blend the d to the previous consonant will do so (for example: paired, sailed, formed, turned, sinned, dedicated).

    If the outline ends with a blend, add a d for the -ed form (for example: examined, recorded, scolded, ended, exempted, rented). In the case of ending with the det/ted blend, add the d with a jog (for example: edited, indebted, outdated).

    In DJS, S90, and Centennial, there is no disjoined t as Peter mentioned, so abbreviated words would be written with an unblended joined d (for example: enclosed would be n-k-d, presented would be p-r-d with no blend, ordered would be o-d-d, written with a jog).

  4. I realized recently that  the simplified/DJS method of using the upturned r for -rd has a benefit for making endings clearer than just the -tn, -dn blend in anniversary which is the same symbol.  For instance,  Gordon and Gorton can be differentiated by using the rd + n for Gordon  and the normal  tn,dn blend for Gorton. This isn't available in anniversary (I think, but I'm no expert in earlier systems),  so the anniversary way would be ambiguous as to the dn or tn sound. Of course in rapid speech they can sound quite similar so probably no big deal overall but it's nice to have a way to show more clarity if you can.  

    1. Do you mean ND, not DN? The symbols are mirrored.

      Also, RD is not the same symbol as ND. They're very similar, but not the same.

      RD goes down a bit first. Start by writing R, then keep going up to the right a bit more.

      ND,NT goes across or even up, then curves up. Write N and D, but without the angle. MD,MT is the same shape, but larger.

      DN,TN goes up-right, then curves to the right. Again, MD,MT are same shape but larger.

      (It took me longer than it should have to look at those four and realize M was longer.)

      1. I believe that what Van is referring to is the fact that in Anniversary, the outline of both Gorton and Gordon is exactly the same: g-o-ten blend. However, in Simplified, Gordon is g-o-rd blend-n and Gorton is g-o-ten blend (like Anniversary), so you can distinguish both. There is no nd blend involved in the writing of either name.

Leave a Reply